Nepal Information

Nepal Information

 

History

King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha in1786 had invaded the Kathmandu Valley and unified Nepal. Before the unification, Nepal was ruled by various Kirats, Lichchavis, Thakuris and Mallas. The history mentioned that Kirats ruled Nepal during the 7th century BC. Though much was not known about Kirats,the Lichchavi dynasty followed the Kirats which lasted from the 2nd to 9th century AD. Nepal was ruled by the Thakuris who were followed by the Mallas for two centuries after The Lichchavis. Nepal was divided into many principalities and small kingdoms in the fifth centuries of Malla rule.

Jang Bahadur Rana the then Prime Minister of Nepal revolted against the royalty in 1844. The famous Kot Massacre took place during this period in which numbers of noblemen were killed. The Rana took absolute power but continued to maintain the Shah family in the palace. The 104 years regime of Ranas came to and end due to their autocratic rules.

It was in November 1950 King Tribhuvan restored democracy overthrowing the Rana regime with large number of Nepalese people support. He restored Shah Regime again in Nepal.After his death King Mahendra had ruled in Nepal from 13 March 1955 to 31 January 1972.

Birendra ruled Nepal from 31 January 1972 –1 June 2001and he was known as one of the most noble and peaceful king of Nepal. The entire family of King Birendra was massacred in June 2001 popularly Known as Royal Massacre 2001. Prince Dipendra was crowned as King while he was on coma stage, later he died in hospital bed. After the death of Diepndra , Gyanendra Shah late King Birendra’s brother succeeded  as the King of Nepal.

King Gyanendra Shah was dethroned in 2006 by a decade long People’s revolution led by communist party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks protest by major political parties and established Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

 

Geography

Nepal is located in South Asia between China in the north and India in the south, east and west. While the total land area is 147,181 sq. km including water area of the country that is 3,830 sq. km. The geographical coordinates are 28°00′N 84°00′E. Nepal falls in the temperate zone north of the Tropic of Cancer.Nepal’s ecological zones run east to west about 800 km along its Himalayan axis, 150 to 250 km north to south, and is vertically intersected by the river systems. The country can be divided into three main geographical regions: Himalayan region, mid hill region and Terai region. The highest point in the country is Mt. Everest (8,848 m) while the lowest point is in the Terai plains of Kechana Kalan in Jhapa (60 m).

In length and breadth, Nepal is just another small country. In height, it’s number one in the world. Nepal stretches from north-west to south-east about 800km and varies in width from around 90km to 230km. This gives it a total area of just 147,181 sq km according to the official figures.

Within that small area, however, is the greatest range of altitude to be seen on Earth-Starting with the Terai, only 100m or so above sea level, and finishing at the top of Mt. Everest (8848m), the world’s highest point.

 

Climate

Nepal has a typical monsoonal, two-season year. The dry season is from Oct to May and wet season is from Jun to Sept. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Nepal has namely five major seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter.An average temperature drop of 6°C occurs for every 1,000 m gain in altitude. In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 37° C and higher in some areas, winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under sub zero. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively.

 

People

The population of Nepal is about 26.62 million. The population comprises of about a 101 ethnic groups speaking over 92 languages. The distinction in caste and ethnicity is understood more easily with a view of customary layout of the population. Nepali is the official language of the state. Multiple ethnic groups have their own mother tongues. English is spoken by many in Government and business offices. It is the mode of education in most private schools of Kathmandu and some other cities.

 

Culture

A conglomeration lies in capital city Kathmandu where cultures are blending to form a national identity. Kathmandu Valley has served as the country’s cultural metropolis since the unification of Nepal in the 18th Century.A prominent factor in a Nepali’s everyday life is religion. Adding color to the lives of Nepalis are festivals the year round which they celebrate with much pomp and joy. Food plays an important role in the celebration of these festivals.

Religion: Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism, Bon, ancestor worship and animism. The majority of Nepalis are either Hindus or Buddhism. The two have co-existed in harmony through centuries.

Customs: Most of these customs go back to the Hindu, Buddhist or other religious traditions. Among them, the rules of marriage are particularly interesting. Traditional marriages call for deals arranged by parents after the boy or girl come of age.
Nepalis do not eat beef. There are several reasons for this, one being that the Hindus worship cow. Cow is also the national animal of Nepal. Another interesting concept among Nepalis is division of pure and impure. “Jutho” referring to food or material touched by another’s mouth directly or indirectly, is considered impure by Nepalis. Nepalis consider cow dung to be pure for cleansing purposes. During menstruation women are considered impure and hence, are kept in seclusion until their fourth day purification bath. Nepal is a patriarchal society. Men usually go out to work while women are homemakers. However, in cities, roles can differ. Most Nepalis abide by the caste system in living habits and marriage. Rural Nepal is mostly agrarian, while some aspects of urban life carry glitz and glamour of the ultra-modern world.